Advanced tongue root

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Advanced tongue root is a feature which characterizes phonemes which are produced by pushing the tongue root forward and often the tongue body upward, so that the resonating chamber of the pharynx is enlarged.


[+ATR] vowels are [i, u, e, , o], [-ATR] are [I, U, e, , a].


Utrecht Lexicon of Linguistics


  • Chomsky, Noam A. & Halle, Morris. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Halle, M. & G. Clements. 1983. Problem Book in Phonology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.