In French, object pronouns are clitics which are either proclitics, as me and les in (i), or enclitics, as les in (ii):
(i) il me les a donnés he to-me them has given 'he has given them to me' (ii) donnez -les -moi give -them -me 'give them to me' (iii) il mei lesj a donnés ei ej
- proclitic (a clitic that precedes its host)
- enclitic (a clitic that follows its host)
- endoclitic, mesoclitic (a clitic that comes in the middle of its host)
A clitic can thus be regarded as a kind of bound morpheme. A typical clitic will attach itself to a host, that is, a (fully inflected) word or phrase. The observation that they can attach to inflected words distinguishes, among other things, clitics from affixes.
- Haegeman, L. 1991. Introduction to Government and Binding Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Kayne, R. 1975. French Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
- Kayne, R. 1990. Romance clitics and PRO, Proceedings of the 20th annual meeting of NELS, CLSA. Univ. of Massachusetts: Amherst.
- Klavans, J. 1982. From Cyclic Phonology to Lexical Phonology. In van der Hulst, H. & Smith, N. (eds.), The Structure of Phonological Representations (I), 131-175.
- Klavans, J. 1985. Some Consequences of Lexical Phonology. In van der Hulst, H. & Smith, N. (eds.), The Structure of Phonological Representations (I), 131-175.
- Nespor, M. & Vogel, I. 1986. Prosodic Phonology. Dordrecht: Foris.
- Rizzi, L. 1986. Null Objects in Italian and the Theory of pro. Linguistic Inquiry 17, 501-557.
- Spencer, A. 1991. Morphological Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Zwicky, A. 1977. Discourse and Logical Form. Linguistic Inquiry 8-1, 101-139.
- Zwicky, A. & Pullum, G. 1983. Cliticization vs. Inflection: English n't. Language 59, 509-513.