In (i) to Mary is topicalized.
(i) To Mary John has given many presents.
In Verb Second languages topicalization is often believed to occur in all declarative main clauses. The following examples are from German:
(ii) a Johann hat Maria viele Geschenke gegeben Johann has Maria many presents given b Maria hat Johann viele Geschenke gegeben c Viele Geschenke hat Johann Maria gegeben
In the 'neutral' case, the subject - Johann - is topicalized, as in (ii)a. If another constituent is topicalized, such as the indirect object Maria in (ii)b or the direct object viele Geschenke in (ii)c, it receives emphatic stress.
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