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Adjunct is a constituent in an adjoined position.

  • "Adjuncts (of place, time, manner, reason, etc....) are optional, or structurally dispensable, constituents of the sentence: they may be removed without affecting the remainder of the sentence." (Lyons 1968:334)


In [X Y [X ...]] Y is Chomsky -adjoined to X.

(i) John killed Bill in Central Park on Sunday.

(ii) John killed Bill in Central Park.

(iii) John killed Bill.


Usually the term 'adjunct' refers to base-generated adjuncts only.

Other languages

German Adjunktion Chinese 附加语


Utrecht Lexicon of Linguistics


Lyons, John. 1968. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.