in (ii) the relative clause which I like is extracted from the subject NP and moved to the right. PPs can be extraposed as well: in (iv) the PP about the Sovjet Union is extraposed.
(i) [NP Many paintings of young artists [CP which I like]] are on sale (ii) [NP Many paintings of young artists t] are on sale [CP which I like] (iii) [NP Many books [PP about the Sovjet Union]] will appear soon (iv) [NP Many books t ] will appear soon [PP about the Sovjet Union]
In general, extraposition is optional and clause bound. In Dutch, complement clauses undergo extraposition obligatorily, as shown by the contrast between (v) and (vi).
(v) * Kees heeft [CP de prijs aan te nemen] geweigerd Kees has the prize prt to accept refused' (vi) Kees heeft t geweigerd [CP de prijs aan te nemen] Kees has refused the prize prt to accept 'Kees has refused to accept the prize'
Finite complement clauses have to be extraposed as well:
(vii) Kees heeft t besloten [CP dat hij de prijs zal weigeren] 'Kees has decided that he the prize will refuse'
Often the term 'extraposition' merely refers to the state of being in a right peripheral position.
- Chomsky, N. 1981. Lectures on Government and Binding, Foris, Dordrecht.
- Evers, A. 1975. The transformational cycle in Dutch and German, diss. Utrecht University, distr. by IULC.
- Ross, J.R. 1967. Constraints on variables in syntax, doctoral dissertation, MIT (published as 'Infinite syntax!' Ablex, Norwood (1986)).
- Rutten, J. 1991. Infinitival Complements and Auxiliaries, Diss, UvA, Amsterdam.
German Extraposition (de)