Focus particle

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A focus particle is a particle that accompanies an element that is focused and that expresses various meanings related to the focusing.


In European languages, particles like only, also and even are the most typical focus particles. However, many languages also have particles for contrastive focus and other kinds of focus that does not have an additive, exclusive or scalar flavour.




  • König, Ekkehard. 1991. The meaning of focus particles. London: Routledge.