In (i) John, the subject of to have won has moved to the subject position of seems.
(i) Johni seems [ ti to have won ]
Subject Raising is triggered by Subject Raising verbs (e.g. to seem), which have as a characteristic property that they do not assign an external theta-role, and select a sentential complement with a case-less subject position. Subject Raising also occurs with passivized ECM verbs, as in (ii).
(ii) Johni is considered [ ti to have won ]
- Chomsky, N. 1981. Lectures on Government and Binding, Foris, Dordrecht.
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