In cognitive-functional linguistics, the term subjectivity is sometimes used for situations in which a linguistic element or construction requires reference to the speaker in its interpretation (e.g. Langacker 1985, Stein & Wright 1995, de Smet & Verstraete 2006).
In the following two examples, the first shows an objective use of across, while the second shows subjectivity, because it means that Vanessa is sitting across the table from the speaker.
- Vanessa is sitting across the table from Veronica.
- Vanessa is sitting across the table.
- de Smet, Hendrik & Verstraete, Jean-Christophe. 2006. Coming to terms with subjectivity. Cognitive Linguistics 17.3:365-392.
- Langacker, Ronald W. 1985. Observations and speculations about subjectivity. In: Haiman, John (ed.) 1985. Iconicity in syntax. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 109-150.
- Stein, Dieter & Wright, Susan (eds.) 1995. Subjectivity and subjectivisation: Linguuistic perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.