In (Dutch) (i)a the infinitival complement has been extraposed in toto, but in (i)b, the so-called third construction, part of the complement (de prijs) is in situ.
(i) a Kees heeft geweigerd [de prijs in ontvangst te nemen] b Kees heeft de prijs geweigerd [in ontvangst te nemen] Kees has the prize refused in acceptance to take 'Kees has refused to accept the prize'
The construction in (i)b can be analyzed as a case of remnant extraposition: some element(s) - de prijs in (i)b - is (are) removed (by scrambling) from the infinitival complement, before the remnant of it is extraposed. In many cases, the remnant will only contain the infinitival verb and the result looks like a verb raising construction. The distinguishing feature is the impossibility of IPP in case of a third construction, and the fact that IPP is obligatory in case of verb raising (cf. (iii).
(ii) Jan heeft een boek geprobeerd te lezen Jan has a book tried to read (iii) Jan heeft een boek proberen te lezen 'Jan has tried to read a book'
The third construction cannot be equated with VP Raising.
- Besten, H. den & J. Rutten 1989. On verb raising, extraposition and free word order in Dutch and German, in: D. Jaspers et al. (eds.) Sentential complementation and the lexicon. Studies in honour of Wim de Geest, Foris, Dordrecht.
- Rutten, J. 1991. Infinitival Complements and Auxiliaries, Diss, UvA, Amsterdam.
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