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ToBI (short for 'Tone and Break Indices') is a framework for developing community-wide conventions for transcribing the intonation and prosodic structure of spoken utterances in a language variety. A ToBI framework system for a language variety is based on careful research on the intonation system and the relationship between intonation and the prosodic structures of the language (e.g. tonally marked phrases and any smaller prosodic constituents that are distinctively marked by other phonological means). Because intonation and prosodic organisation differ from language to language, or even from dialect to dialect, there are many different ToBI systems.



  • Silverman, Beckman, Pitrelli, Ostendorf, Wightman, Price, Pierrehumbert, and Hirschberg 1992. ToBI: a standard for labelling English prosody, In Proceedings of ICSLP92, volume 2, 867-870
  • Silverman, K. and J. Pierrehumbert 1990. The timing of pre-nuclear high accents in English, In J. Kingston and M. Beckman, editors, Between the Grammar and the Physics of Speech, Papers in Laboratory Phonology I, 72-106, Cambridge University Press

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